Yes salt can destroy concrete overtime.
So it's best to not use salt on concrete otherwise you could wind up with cracked concrete and pits in it.
When you put salt on concrete it leads to those cracks and pits and when cracks in the concrete develop and when water gets into those and freezes, the expansion of the concrete will lead to a cascading cycle that will eventually destroy the concrete.
You could put sand on concrete when it's icy and before it becomes icy to help gain traction to prevent you from slipping and falling.
Some other good ways to melt ice from concrete is to use some ice melt made for concrete such as Ice melt that contains Calcium Chloride and Magnesium Chloride.
Or use a torch to melt the ice off the concrete.