Bamboo does grow in Kansas.
I've lived in Kansas before and my neighbor at the time had quite a bit of bamboo around her front yard that she grew to make a fence with.
In some parts of Kansas such as Wichita KS the bamboo may not grow as good but in other parts such as Reno County KS or Hutchinson KS then the bamboo usually grows better.
If you want to grow bamboo in Kansas be sure to plant the variety that grows the best in your zone.
Bamboo mostly grows the best in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America, extending as far north as the southern United States or central China, and as far south as Patagonia.
But in some other parts of the USA bamboo does grow pretty well.